0001 GNU Free Documentation License
0002 Version 1.3, 3 November 2008
0005 Copyright (C) 2000, 2001, 2002, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
0007 Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
0008 of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
0010 0. PREAMBLE
0012 The purpose of this License is to make a manual, textbook, or other
0013 functional and useful document "free" in the sense of freedom: to
0014 assure everyone the effective freedom to copy and redistribute it,
0015 with or without modifying it, either commercially or noncommercially.
0016 Secondarily, this License preserves for the author and publisher a way
0017 to get credit for their work, while not being considered responsible
0018 for modifications made by others.
0020 This License is a kind of "copyleft", which means that derivative
0021 works of the document must themselves be free in the same sense. It
0022 complements the GNU General Public License, which is a copyleft
0023 license designed for free software.
0025 We have designed this License in order to use it for manuals for free
0026 software, because free software needs free documentation: a free
0027 program should come with manuals providing the same freedoms that the
0028 software does. But this License is not limited to software manuals;
0029 it can be used for any textual work, regardless of subject matter or
0030 whether it is published as a printed book. We recommend this License
0031 principally for works whose purpose is instruction or reference.
0034 1. APPLICABILITY AND DEFINITIONS
0036 This License applies to any manual or other work, in any medium, that
0037 contains a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it can be
0038 distributed under the terms of this License. Such a notice grants a
0039 world-wide, royalty-free license, unlimited in duration, to use that
0040 work under the conditions stated herein. The "Document", below,
0041 refers to any such manual or work. Any member of the public is a
0042 licensee, and is addressed as "you". You accept the license if you
0043 copy, modify or distribute the work in a way requiring permission
0044 under copyright law.
0046 A "Modified Version" of the Document means any work containing the
0047 Document or a portion of it, either copied verbatim, or with
0048 modifications and/or translated into another language.
0050 A "Secondary Section" is a named appendix or a front-matter section of
0051 the Document that deals exclusively with the relationship of the
0052 publishers or authors of the Document to the Document's overall
0053 subject (or to related matters) and contains nothing that could fall
0054 directly within that overall subject. (Thus, if the Document is in
0055 part a textbook of mathematics, a Secondary Section may not explain
0056 any mathematics.) The relationship could be a matter of historical
0057 connection with the subject or with related matters, or of legal,
0058 commercial, philosophical, ethical or political position regarding
0061 The "Invariant Sections" are certain Secondary Sections whose titles
0062 are designated, as being those of Invariant Sections, in the notice
0063 that says that the Document is released under this License. If a
0064 section does not fit the above definition of Secondary then it is not
0065 allowed to be designated as Invariant. The Document may contain zero
0066 Invariant Sections. If the Document does not identify any Invariant
0067 Sections then there are none.
0069 The "Cover Texts" are certain short passages of text that are listed,
0070 as Front-Cover Texts or Back-Cover Texts, in the notice that says that
0071 the Document is released under this License. A Front-Cover Text may
0072 be at most 5 words, and a Back-Cover Text may be at most 25 words.
0074 A "Transparent" copy of the Document means a machine-readable copy,
0075 represented in a format whose specification is available to the
0076 general public, that is suitable for revising the document
0077 straightforwardly with generic text editors or (for images composed of
0078 pixels) generic paint programs or (for drawings) some widely available
0079 drawing editor, and that is suitable for input to text formatters or
0080 for automatic translation to a variety of formats suitable for input
0081 to text formatters. A copy made in an otherwise Transparent file
0082 format whose markup, or absence of markup, has been arranged to thwart
0083 or discourage subsequent modification by readers is not Transparent.
0084 An image format is not Transparent if used for any substantial amount
0085 of text. A copy that is not "Transparent" is called "Opaque".
0087 Examples of suitable formats for Transparent copies include plain
0088 ASCII without markup, Texinfo input format, LaTeX input format, SGML
0089 or XML using a publicly available DTD, and standard-conforming simple
0090 HTML, PostScript or PDF designed for human modification. Examples of
0091 transparent image formats include PNG, XCF and JPG. Opaque formats
0092 include proprietary formats that can be read and edited only by
0093 proprietary word processors, SGML or XML for which the DTD and/or
0094 processing tools are not generally available, and the
0095 machine-generated HTML, PostScript or PDF produced by some word
0096 processors for output purposes only.
0098 The "Title Page" means, for a printed book, the title page itself,
0099 plus such following pages as are needed to hold, legibly, the material
0100 this License requires to appear in the title page. For works in
0101 formats which do not have any title page as such, "Title Page" means
0102 the text near the most prominent appearance of the work's title,
0103 preceding the beginning of the body of the text.
0105 The "publisher" means any person or entity that distributes copies of
0106 the Document to the public.
0108 A section "Entitled XYZ" means a named subunit of the Document whose
0109 title either is precisely XYZ or contains XYZ in parentheses following
0110 text that translates XYZ in another language. (Here XYZ stands for a
0111 specific section name mentioned below, such as "Acknowledgements",
0112 "Dedications", "Endorsements", or "History".) To "Preserve the Title"
0113 of such a section when you modify the Document means that it remains a
0114 section "Entitled XYZ" according to this definition.
0116 The Document may include Warranty Disclaimers next to the notice which
0117 states that this License applies to the Document. These Warranty
0118 Disclaimers are considered to be included by reference in this
0119 License, but only as regards disclaiming warranties: any other
0120 implication that these Warranty Disclaimers may have is void and has
0121 no effect on the meaning of this License.
0123 2. VERBATIM COPYING
0125 You may copy and distribute the Document in any medium, either
0126 commercially or noncommercially, provided that this License, the
0127 copyright notices, and the license notice saying this License applies
0128 to the Document are reproduced in all copies, and that you add no
0129 other conditions whatsoever to those of this License. You may not use
0130 technical measures to obstruct or control the reading or further
0131 copying of the copies you make or distribute. However, you may accept
0132 compensation in exchange for copies. If you distribute a large enough
0133 number of copies you must also follow the conditions in section 3.
0135 You may also lend copies, under the same conditions stated above, and
0136 you may publicly display copies.
0139 3. COPYING IN QUANTITY
0141 If you publish printed copies (or copies in media that commonly have
0142 printed covers) of the Document, numbering more than 100, and the
0143 Document's license notice requires Cover Texts, you must enclose the
0144 copies in covers that carry, clearly and legibly, all these Cover
0145 Texts: Front-Cover Texts on the front cover, and Back-Cover Texts on
0146 the back cover. Both covers must also clearly and legibly identify
0147 you as the publisher of these copies. The front cover must present
0148 the full title with all words of the title equally prominent and
0149 visible. You may add other material on the covers in addition.
0150 Copying with changes limited to the covers, as long as they preserve
0151 the title of the Document and satisfy these conditions, can be treated
0152 as verbatim copying in other respects.
0154 If the required texts for either cover are too voluminous to fit
0155 legibly, you should put the first ones listed (as many as fit
0156 reasonably) on the actual cover, and continue the rest onto adjacent
0159 If you publish or distribute Opaque copies of the Document numbering
0160 more than 100, you must either include a machine-readable Transparent
0161 copy along with each Opaque copy, or state in or with each Opaque copy
0162 a computer-network location from which the general network-using
0163 public has access to download using public-standard network protocols
0164 a complete Transparent copy of the Document, free of added material.
0165 If you use the latter option, you must take reasonably prudent steps,
0166 when you begin distribution of Opaque copies in quantity, to ensure
0167 that this Transparent copy will remain thus accessible at the stated
0168 location until at least one year after the last time you distribute an
0169 Opaque copy (directly or through your agents or retailers) of that
0170 edition to the public.
0172 It is requested, but not required, that you contact the authors of the
0173 Document well before redistributing any large number of copies, to
0174 give them a chance to provide you with an updated version of the
0178 4. MODIFICATIONS
0180 You may copy and distribute a Modified Version of the Document under
0181 the conditions of sections 2 and 3 above, provided that you release
0182 the Modified Version under precisely this License, with the Modified
0183 Version filling the role of the Document, thus licensing distribution
0184 and modification of the Modified Version to whoever possesses a copy
0185 of it. In addition, you must do these things in the Modified Version:
0187 A. Use in the Title Page (and on the covers, if any) a title distinct
0188 from that of the Document, and from those of previous versions
0189 (which should, if there were any, be listed in the History section
0190 of the Document). You may use the same title as a previous version
0191 if the original publisher of that version gives permission.
0192 B. List on the Title Page, as authors, one or more persons or entities
0193 responsible for authorship of the modifications in the Modified
0194 Version, together with at least five of the principal authors of the
0195 Document (all of its principal authors, if it has fewer than five),
0196 unless they release you from this requirement.
0197 C. State on the Title page the name of the publisher of the
0198 Modified Version, as the publisher.
0199 D. Preserve all the copyright notices of the Document.
0200 E. Add an appropriate copyright notice for your modifications
0201 adjacent to the other copyright notices.
0202 F. Include, immediately after the copyright notices, a license notice
0203 giving the public permission to use the Modified Version under the
0204 terms of this License, in the form shown in the Addendum below.
0205 G. Preserve in that license notice the full lists of Invariant Sections
0206 and required Cover Texts given in the Document's license notice.
0207 H. Include an unaltered copy of this License.
0208 I. Preserve the section Entitled "History", Preserve its Title, and add
0209 to it an item stating at least the title, year, new authors, and
0210 publisher of the Modified Version as given on the Title Page. If
0211 there is no section Entitled "History" in the Document, create one
0212 stating the title, year, authors, and publisher of the Document as
0213 given on its Title Page, then add an item describing the Modified
0214 Version as stated in the previous sentence.
0215 J. Preserve the network location, if any, given in the Document for
0216 public access to a Transparent copy of the Document, and likewise
0217 the network locations given in the Document for previous versions
0218 it was based on. These may be placed in the "History" section.
0219 You may omit a network location for a work that was published at
0220 least four years before the Document itself, or if the original
0221 publisher of the version it refers to gives permission.
0222 K. For any section Entitled "Acknowledgements" or "Dedications",
0223 Preserve the Title of the section, and preserve in the section all
0224 the substance and tone of each of the contributor acknowledgements
0225 and/or dedications given therein.
0226 L. Preserve all the Invariant Sections of the Document,
0227 unaltered in their text and in their titles. Section numbers
0228 or the equivalent are not considered part of the section titles.
0229 M. Delete any section Entitled "Endorsements". Such a section
0230 may not be included in the Modified Version.
0231 N. Do not retitle any existing section to be Entitled "Endorsements"
0232 or to conflict in title with any Invariant Section.
0233 O. Preserve any Warranty Disclaimers.
0235 If the Modified Version includes new front-matter sections or
0236 appendices that qualify as Secondary Sections and contain no material
0237 copied from the Document, you may at your option designate some or all
0238 of these sections as invariant. To do this, add their titles to the
0239 list of Invariant Sections in the Modified Version's license notice.
0240 These titles must be distinct from any other section titles.
0242 You may add a section Entitled "Endorsements", provided it contains
0243 nothing but endorsements of your Modified Version by various
0244 parties--for example, statements of peer review or that the text has
0245 been approved by an organization as the authoritative definition of a
0248 You may add a passage of up to five words as a Front-Cover Text, and a
0249 passage of up to 25 words as a Back-Cover Text, to the end of the list
0250 of Cover Texts in the Modified Version. Only one passage of
0251 Front-Cover Text and one of Back-Cover Text may be added by (or
0252 through arrangements made by) any one entity. If the Document already
0253 includes a cover text for the same cover, previously added by you or
0254 by arrangement made by the same entity you are acting on behalf of,
0255 you may not add another; but you may replace the old one, on explicit
0256 permission from the previous publisher that added the old one.
0258 The author(s) and publisher(s) of the Document do not by this License
0259 give permission to use their names for publicity for or to assert or
0260 imply endorsement of any Modified Version.
0263 5. COMBINING DOCUMENTS
0265 You may combine the Document with other documents released under this
0266 License, under the terms defined in section 4 above for modified
0267 versions, provided that you include in the combination all of the
0268 Invariant Sections of all of the original documents, unmodified, and
0269 list them all as Invariant Sections of your combined work in its
0270 license notice, and that you preserve all their Warranty Disclaimers.
0272 The combined work need only contain one copy of this License, and
0273 multiple identical Invariant Sections may be replaced with a single
0274 copy. If there are multiple Invariant Sections with the same name but
0275 different contents, make the title of each such section unique by
0276 adding at the end of it, in parentheses, the name of the original
0277 author or publisher of that section if known, or else a unique number.
0278 Make the same adjustment to the section titles in the list of
0279 Invariant Sections in the license notice of the combined work.
0281 In the combination, you must combine any sections Entitled "History"
0282 in the various original documents, forming one section Entitled
0283 "History"; likewise combine any sections Entitled "Acknowledgements",
0284 and any sections Entitled "Dedications". You must delete all sections
0285 Entitled "Endorsements".
0288 6. COLLECTIONS OF DOCUMENTS
0290 You may make a collection consisting of the Document and other
0291 documents released under this License, and replace the individual
0292 copies of this License in the various documents with a single copy
0293 that is included in the collection, provided that you follow the rules
0294 of this License for verbatim copying of each of the documents in all
0295 other respects.
0297 You may extract a single document from such a collection, and
0298 distribute it individually under this License, provided you insert a
0299 copy of this License into the extracted document, and follow this
0300 License in all other respects regarding verbatim copying of that
0304 7. AGGREGATION WITH INDEPENDENT WORKS
0306 A compilation of the Document or its derivatives with other separate
0307 and independent documents or works, in or on a volume of a storage or
0308 distribution medium, is called an "aggregate" if the copyright
0309 resulting from the compilation is not used to limit the legal rights
0310 of the compilation's users beyond what the individual works permit.
0311 When the Document is included in an aggregate, this License does not
0312 apply to the other works in the aggregate which are not themselves
0313 derivative works of the Document.
0315 If the Cover Text requirement of section 3 is applicable to these
0316 copies of the Document, then if the Document is less than one half of
0317 the entire aggregate, the Document's Cover Texts may be placed on
0318 covers that bracket the Document within the aggregate, or the
0319 electronic equivalent of covers if the Document is in electronic form.
0320 Otherwise they must appear on printed covers that bracket the whole
0324 8. TRANSLATION
0326 Translation is considered a kind of modification, so you may
0327 distribute translations of the Document under the terms of section 4.
0328 Replacing Invariant Sections with translations requires special
0329 permission from their copyright holders, but you may include
0330 translations of some or all Invariant Sections in addition to the
0331 original versions of these Invariant Sections. You may include a
0332 translation of this License, and all the license notices in the
0333 Document, and any Warranty Disclaimers, provided that you also include
0334 the original English version of this License and the original versions
0335 of those notices and disclaimers. In case of a disagreement between
0336 the translation and the original version of this License or a notice
0337 or disclaimer, the original version will prevail.
0339 If a section in the Document is Entitled "Acknowledgements",
0340 "Dedications", or "History", the requirement (section 4) to Preserve
0341 its Title (section 1) will typically require changing the actual
0345 9. TERMINATION
0347 You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Document
0348 except as expressly provided under this License. Any attempt
0349 otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute it is void, and
0350 will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
0352 However, if you cease all violation of this License, then your license
0353 from a particular copyright holder is reinstated (a) provisionally,
0354 unless and until the copyright holder explicitly and finally
0355 terminates your license, and (b) permanently, if the copyright holder
0356 fails to notify you of the violation by some reasonable means prior to
0357 60 days after the cessation.
0359 Moreover, your license from a particular copyright holder is
0360 reinstated permanently if the copyright holder notifies you of the
0361 violation by some reasonable means, this is the first time you have
0362 received notice of violation of this License (for any work) from that
0363 copyright holder, and you cure the violation prior to 30 days after
0364 your receipt of the notice.
0366 Termination of your rights under this section does not terminate the
0367 licenses of parties who have received copies or rights from you under
0368 this License. If your rights have been terminated and not permanently
0369 reinstated, receipt of a copy of some or all of the same material does
0370 not give you any rights to use it.
0373 10. FUTURE REVISIONS OF THIS LICENSE
0375 The Free Software Foundation may publish new, revised versions of the
0376 GNU Free Documentation License from time to time. Such new versions
0377 will be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in
0378 detail to address new problems or concerns. See
0381 Each version of the License is given a distinguishing version number.
0382 If the Document specifies that a particular numbered version of this
0383 License "or any later version" applies to it, you have the option of
0384 following the terms and conditions either of that specified version or
0385 of any later version that has been published (not as a draft) by the
0386 Free Software Foundation. If the Document does not specify a version
0387 number of this License, you may choose any version ever published (not
0388 as a draft) by the Free Software Foundation. If the Document
0389 specifies that a proxy can decide which future versions of this
0390 License can be used, that proxy's public statement of acceptance of a
0391 version permanently authorizes you to choose that version for the
0394 11. RELICENSING
0396 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration Site" (or "MMC Site") means any
0397 World Wide Web server that publishes copyrightable works and also
0398 provides prominent facilities for anybody to edit those works. A
0399 public wiki that anybody can edit is an example of such a server. A
0400 "Massive Multiauthor Collaboration" (or "MMC") contained in the site
0401 means any set of copyrightable works thus published on the MMC site.
0403 "CC-BY-SA" means the Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0
0404 license published by Creative Commons Corporation, a not-for-profit
0405 corporation with a principal place of business in San Francisco,
0406 California, as well as future copyleft versions of that license
0407 published by that same organization.
0409 "Incorporate" means to publish or republish a Document, in whole or in
0410 part, as part of another Document.
0412 An MMC is "eligible for relicensing" if it is licensed under this
0413 License, and if all works that were first published under this License
0414 somewhere other than this MMC, and subsequently incorporated in whole or
0415 in part into the MMC, (1) had no cover texts or invariant sections, and
0416 (2) were thus incorporated prior to November 1, 2008.
0418 The operator of an MMC Site may republish an MMC contained in the site
0419 under CC-BY-SA on the same site at any time before August 1, 2009,
0420 provided the MMC is eligible for relicensing.
0423 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
0425 To use this License in a document you have written, include a copy of
0426 the License in the document and put the following copyright and
0427 license notices just after the title page:
0429 Copyright (c) YEAR YOUR NAME.
0430 Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
0431 under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3
0432 or any later version published by the Free Software Foundation;
0433 with no Invariant Sections, no Front-Cover Texts, and no Back-Cover Texts.
0434 A copy of the license is included in the section entitled "GNU
0435 Free Documentation License".
0437 If you have Invariant Sections, Front-Cover Texts and Back-Cover Texts,
0438 replace the "with...Texts." line with this:
0440 with the Invariant Sections being LIST THEIR TITLES, with the
0441 Front-Cover Texts being LIST, and with the Back-Cover Texts being LIST.
0443 If you have Invariant Sections without Cover Texts, or some other
0444 combination of the three, merge those two alternatives to suit the
0447 If your document contains nontrivial examples of program code, we
0448 recommend releasing these examples in parallel under your choice of
0449 free software license, such as the GNU General Public License,
0450 to permit their use in free software.